Ancient Caucasus

The Caucasus and the Caspian Sea, located at the junction of Europe and Asia , have played an important political role for millennia, economic and cultural development of peoples and countries. The Caucasus-Caspian region was a convenient springboard for an offensive in the Middle East , Central Asia , India ... The main geopolitical role in this region was played by the Caucasus, bordered by the Black, Azov and Caspian Seas. The Caucasus was a military-strategic bridgehead for advancing access to the Eastern Mediterranean and Persian Gulf. Due to its geographic location, the Caucasus connected Eastern Europe with Western Asia. Through this region, there were routes from Central Asia to the Black Sea and the Mediterranean, from the Eurasian steppes to the Middle East. The Caucasus mountains served as a reliable barrier, enclosing the flat expanses of southern Russia from expansion from the South Caucasus - from the north.

On the western coast of the Caspian, where the Caucasus mountains come close to the sea, leaving only a narrow coastal strip, in ancient times the famous Caspian route ran - the most convenient road from South-Eastern Europe to Western Asia, connecting for many centuries the areas of nomads in the North Caucasus with areas of ancient agriculture in the South Caucasus. Since the Bronze Age, the warlike tribes of the Kipchaks rushed along it to the fertile agricultural centers of the south. The interactions of the Kipchaks of the North with the settled population of the East, nomads and farmers, which played such a great role in the history of the peoples of the Caucasus and Western Asia, were an essential element of the economic system of the Ancient World. The ancient Caucasus was a constant theater of political events: peoples of different races and different mixtures invaded from the south to the north and northwest, then from the north to the south and southeast, therefore the passages between the Caspian and the Black Seas did not know any rest from popular movements. For many centuries, ancient Iranian tribes from the steppes of Eastern Europe passed this way, the Scythians, Massagets, Sarmatians, Alans, Huns, Savirs, Khazars and many other nomadic tribes of the Eurasian steppes penetrated into the South Caucasus and Western Asia. During the period of the beginning of the Scythian invasion of Western Asia, already at the end of the 8th - early 7th centuries. BC. the fortress of Derbent with its powerful fortifications arose. In the writings of Herodotus (5th century BC), Strabo (1st century BC - 1st century AD), Pliny the Elder (1st century), Ptolemy (1st-2nd centuries) , Cassius Dion (II century) and other Greco-Roman historians and geographers contain information about the "Caspian gates". Through the Main Caucasian ridge - along the Darial passage in the VIII-VII centuries. BC. The tribes of the Cimmerians and Scythians , who lived in the North Caucasus, rushed southward, invading Assyria, Urartu and Media. Since the time of Homer, the Caucasus, the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea attracted the attention of the intellectual and military-political elite of the Ancient world. Assyrian cuneiforms during the reign of Adadnerari III (810–783 BC) refer to the Caspian as the “Great Sea of Sunrise”. Rumors about the untold riches of the Caucasus, apparently, served as the basis for the ancient Greek myth of the Argonauts who set off by sea to the distant and mysterious Colchis for the Golden Fleece. The legendary Homer believed that the Earth in the west stretches to the Atlantic Ocean, and in the east - to the "Pond of the Sun" - the Caspian Sea. According to the ancient Greek poet, "The Pond of the Sun is the bay of the deep and smoothly flowing world river of the Ocean." Already Herodotus in the 5th century. BC. possessed fairly reliable information about the size of the Caspian Sea, noting that it is a closed body of water, not connected with any other sea. Moreover, both Herodotus himself and later antique authors invariably emphasized the extremely variegated polyethnic nature of the "Land of the Mountains". “Many different tribes live in the Caucasus,” noted the “father of history” Herodotus. This information is also contained in the works of the ancient geographer Strabo (1st century BC - 1st century AD), historian Cornelius Tacitus (55-117) and other natural resources of the region, which was also a region versatile contacts between Eastern Europe and Western Asia, served as one of the important reasons and objects of the expansion of the ancient states of the Mediterranean. The gaze of Alexander the Great , Pompey , Caesar , Nero and other powerful people of this ancient West were fixed on the Caucasus and the Caspian. North Caucasus , from the IV century. BC. becomes the most important supplier of "oil of the Ancient World" - bread to Athens. In the middle of the 1st millennium BC. In the eastern and northern regions of the Caspian, there were tribes engaged in nomadic cattle breeding, which Herodotus and other ancient authors called Scythians, and in the Achaemenid cuneiform texts, Saks . The successors of the Saks were established in the III-II centuries. BC. tribal unions of Usuns who occupied the territory of Semirechye , tribes that were part of the state formation Kanchuy, settled in the regions of Karatau and the middle reaches of the Syr Darya, as well as the tribes of Alans who roamed from the western shores of the Aral to the northern shores of the Caspian seas. These tribes had economic, political and cultural ties with China, Maverannahr, the Volga region. Caravans passed through the lands of the Usuns along one of the branches of the Great Silk Road. On the territory of modern Turkmenistan in the middle of the 1st millennium BC. the most economically developed were Margiana and Parthia. On the southeastern coast of the Caspian Sea was the region of Hyrcania, and to the north, in the steppes, inhabited the nomadic tribes of the Massagetae and Dakhs. B VII-VI centuries. BC. Margiana was part of Bactria, and Parthia and Hyrcania were part of the Median state . B VI-V centuries. BC. these territories were already part of the Achaemenid Empire. Subsequently, after the conquests of Alexander the Great , Parthia first established their control over these territories , and from the 3rd century. - Sassanids. Meanwhile, having withstood the onslaught of the tellurocratic continental forces of the East in the person of the Achaemenid Empire in the long Greco-Persian wars (495-449 BC), thanks to the most powerful fleet at that time, the Hellenistic West began a counteroffensive in a little over a hundred years. eastward, lasting several centuries ...

Ibn Ruste

22 Dec 2020

Abu Ali Ahmad ibn Umar Ibn Rust - an Arab geographer, Persian by origin, lived in the Iranian city of Isfahan in the 9th - first third of the 10th century. He was the author of a large encyclopedic work "The Book of Expensive Values " ("Kitab al-a'lak an-nafisa") , compiled in 903-925.
There is only one manuscript of the seventh volume of the work, which is devoted to astronomy and geography. The preserved section of the book contains the earliest information in the Arab geographical literature about the Rus, Slavs , Khazars, Burtases, Bulgars , Magyars. The researchers called the entire block of Ibn Rust's information about the peoples of Eastern Europe “Anonymous note on the peoples of Eastern Europe” and dated it approximately to the 70-90s of the 9th century, according to the mention of Svyatopolk, the sovereign of Great Moravia. This identification, like the time of writing Anonymous Note, is not universally accepted. Even before the publication of the critical edition of Ibn Rust's work, fragments of his work (under the erroneous name of Ibn Dast) were published in translation by D.A. Khvolson.
Essays from the book of Ibn RUSTE "The Book of Gems"

Bulgar borders on the country Burtas.

Bulgarians live on the banks of the river, which flows into the Khazar Sea and is called Itil, flowing between the countries of the Khazars and the Slavs. The king of Bulgar, named Almush, professes Islam. Their country consists of marshlands and dense forests, among which they live. They are divided into three sections: one section is called Barsula, the other - Asgal, and the third - Bulgar. They all live in the same area. The Khazars are bargaining with the Bulgars, and the Rus also bring their goods to them. All of them (Rus or Bulgars?), Who live on both banks of the mentioned river, bring their goods to them (Bulgars), such as sable furs, ermine furs, squirrels and others.

Bulgar people are agricultural and cultivate all kinds of grain bread, such as wheat, barley, millet and others. - Most of them profess Islam, and in their villages there are mosques and elementary schools with muezzins and imams. Those of them, who are in paganism, prostrate themselves before every acquaintance they meet. The distance between the Burtases and these Bulgars is three days' journey. They (Bulgar) raid them (Burtases), rob them and take them prisoner. They have horses, chain mail and full armor. They pay tribute to their king with horses and others. From any of them who marry, the king takes for himself a riding horse. When Muslim merchant ships come to them, they take tithes from them. Their clothing is similar to Muslim; likewise, their cemeteries are like those of the Muslims. Their main wealth is cooney fur. They do not have their minted coin; the hardy coin is replaced by marten furs. Each fur is equal to two and a half dirgems. White, round dirgems come to them from Muslim countries by way of exchange for their goods. "


"Between the country of Badjanaks and the country of the Slavs, the distance is 10 days. At the very beginning of the border of the country of the Slavs there is a city named Cuyab?. The path to their country goes through the steppes, through roadless lands, through streams and dense forests. The country of the Slavs is a flat country and wooded; they live in the forests. It has neither vineyards nor arable land. They make a kind of jugs out of wood, in which they also have hives for bees, and bee honey is saved. This is called sij by them and one jug contains about 10 cups of it. They graze pigs like sheep. When one of them dies, they burn his corpse. Their women, when they have a dead man, scratch their hands and faces with a knife. The next day, after the dead man is burned, they go to the place where it happened, they collect the ashes and put it in an urn, which is then placed on a hill.A year after the death of the deceased, they take twenty honey jars, sometimes a little more, sometimes a little less, and carry them to the hill where the family of the deceased gathers oh, eat, drink, and then disperse. If the deceased had three wives and one of them claims that she (especially) loved him, then she brings two pillars to his corpse and drive them upright into the ground, then they put a third pillar across, tie a rope in the middle of this crossbar, stand on a bench and the end of this rope ties around his neck. When she did this, the bench is taken from under it and it remains hanging until it suffocates and dies, and upon death it is thrown into the fire, where it burns up. They are all idolaters. They sow millet most of all. During the harvest, they take millet grains into a ladle, raise them to heaven and say: Lord, you who provided us with food (until now), supply us with it in abundance now.

They have all sorts of lutes, gusli and flutes. Their flutes were two cubits long, and their lute was octagonal. The intoxicated drink is made from honey. When the dead are burned, they indulge in noisy fun, expressing by this the joy of their mercy, shown to him (the dead man) by God. Working cattle there are few of them, and only one mentioned person has riding horses. Their armament consists of darts, shields and spears: they have no other weapon.

Their head is crowned; they obey him, and do not retreat from his orders. His home is in the middle of the country of the Slavs. The aforementioned person, whom they call "the head of the heads," is called the holy king; this person stands above subanej (zupan), who is only his deputy. This king has riding horses, has no food other than mare's milk. He also has fine, durable and precious chain mail. The city in which he lives is called Jarvab (?), There is a monthly bargaining for three days 30. The cold in their country is so strong that each of them digs a kind of cellar in the ground, to which he attaches a wooden a gabled roof, like the (roof) of a Christian church, and overlaps the roof with earth. They move into such cellars with the whole family, and taking a few firewood and stones, they light a fire and glow the stones on the fire until they turn red.

When the stones are heated to the highest degree, they are poured with water, from which steam spreads, heating the house to the point that clothes are already removed. They stay in such housing until spring. The Tsar visits them annually. If any of them has a daughter, the king takes one of her dresses a year; and if there is a son, the king also takes one of his clothes a year. Whoever has neither a son nor a daughter, he gives one of the dresses of his wife or servant a year. The tsar will catch the robber in his state, order or strangle him, or will give him under the supervision of one of the rulers on the remote outskirts of his possessions. "


"As for Rusia, it is located on an island surrounded by a lake. This island, on which they (Rusy) live, occupies the space of three days' journey: it is covered with forests and swamps; unhealthy and cheese to the point that it is worth stepping on the ground , and it is already shaking due to the abundance of water in it. They have a king who is called Khakan-Rus. They raid the Slavs, approach them on ships, disembark, take them (Slavs) prisoner, take them to Khazran 34 and Bulgar and sell there. They do not have arable land, but eat only what they bring from the land of the Slavs. When one of them has a son, he takes a naked sword, puts it in front of the newborn and says: "I will not leave you any inheritance, but you will only have what you gain with this sword. ”They have neither real estate, nor cities (or villages), nor arable lands; their only business is the trade in sables, squirrels and other furs, which they sell to those who wish; received by money is tied tightly in the belt sa own. They dress untidy; the men wear gold bracelets. Slaves are treated well and their clothes are taken care of because they are occupied in the trade. They have a large number of cities, and they live in the open. Guests are honored and treated well with foreigners who seek their protection, and with everyone who often visits them, not allowing any of their own to offend or oppress such people. In the event that any of them offend or oppress the stranger, they help the latter and protect him.

Their swords are Suleiman. When one of their clans asks for help, all appear in the field; there is no discord between them, but they fight unanimously against the enemy until they defeat him. If one of them has a case against another, then he calls him to judgment before the king, before whom they quarrel; when the king pronounced the sentence, what he commands is fulfilled. If both sides are dissatisfied with the tsar's verdict, then, by his order, they must present the final decision to the weapon: whose sword is sharper, he will prevail. Relatives (of both litigants) come to this fight armed and become. Then the rivals enter the battle, and whoever defeats the opponent wins the case at his request. They have sorcerers, some of whom command the king, as if they were their leaders (Rus). It happens that they order to sacrifice to their creator, whatever they want: women, men and horses, and even when the healers order, it is impossible not to fulfill their order in any way. Taking a person or an animal, the medicine man puts a noose around his neck, hangs the victim on a log and waits until it suffocates, and says that this is a sacrifice to God.

They are courageous and brave. When they attack another people, they do not lag behind until they destroy it all, rape the vanquished and turn them into slavery. They are tall, have a good look and courage in attacks; but they do not show this courage on horseback, and they make all their raids and campaigns on ships. They wear wide sharavaras: one hundred cubits of cloth goes for each. Putting on such sharavars, they collect them into assemblies at the knee, to which they then tie them. None of them defecate in private: three of his comrades will certainly accompany him and protect him. All constantly carry swords with them, because they trust each other little, and that deceit between them is an ordinary thing: if someone succeeds in acquiring even a small property, then a brother or comrade immediately begins to envy and covet how to kill or rob him. ...

When one of the nobles dies with them, they dig his grave in the form of a large house, put it there, and together with him put in the same grave both his clothes and the gold bracelets he wore; then they put a lot of foodstuffs, vessels with drinks and a minted coin there. Finally they put the deceased's wife alive and beloved in the grave. Then the opening of the grave is laid, and the wife dies in custody ".....

Al Istahari

Al Istahari
Al Istahari

Abu-Iskhak-Ibrahim-ibn-Muhammad al-Farisiy al-Istakhriy , about whose life we know almost nothing, left behind a work under the title: " Kitabu mesalik-il-memalik (book of the paths of kingdoms)." This work is a publication of the works of his predecessor Abu-Zeid-Ahmed-ibn-Sahl al-Balkhiya, supplemented by al-Istakhariy himself.

Al-Balkhiy , a native of the city of Balkh, studied philosophy in Iraq under the guidance of al-Kindiya and was the secretary of the Balkh prince Ahmed-ibn-Sahl-ibn-Hashim al-Merveziya. Al-Balkhi compiled an atlas of geographical maps: " Suvar-il-akalim (image of the belts of the earth)" with brief explanations, which were later widely disseminated by al-Istakhriy. The first edition of this atlas was published in 307 or 308 AH, and the second between 318 and 319 AH. Al-Balkhi died in 322 AH (934 A.D.).

The text of al-Istakhriyya constitutes the first volume of the Bibliotheca geographorum arabicorum. Lugd. Batav. 1870 ”, editions de Goeje.

From the book of the paths of the kingdoms

Abu-Ishaq Ibrahim-ibn-Muhammad al-Farisiyya al-Istakhriy, known as al-Kerkhiya.

In our description, we have already reached the extreme limits of Islam from the eastern side and are returning again to the limits of Rum to the west. So, we will give a description of this belt to the extreme limits of Islam in the east; We will start with the countries of Armenia, Arran and Aderbeydzhan, considering them as one about one of them.

Armenia, Arran and Aderbeydzhan.

We connect Armenia, Arran and Aderbeydzhan on one map; and consider it as one area. They are bordered by, adjoining from the east, Djibal, Deilem and the western coast of the Khazar Sea; from the west, the limits of Armand. Allanov and partly the borders of Jazira, from the north of Allana and Mount Kabk, from the south they border with Iraq and partly the borders of Jazira.

The largest city in Aderbeydzhan Ardabil; it houses the army camp and the ruler's palace. This city occupies two-thirds of a farsakh in length and as much in width, and around it is a wall, and there are three gates in it, most of its buildings are made of clay; this city is flourishing and the prices are cheap. About two farces from Ardabil there is a huge and high mountain called Sabalan. There is snow on it and winter and summer, and it is uninhabited.

Ardabil is followed by Meraga in size; in former times there was a camp of troops and a palace of the ruler. Meraga is a very healthy area, flourishing, abundant in gardens, volosts and crops: around it is a wall that Ibn-abi-s-Sajj destroyed.

Urmia is next in size after Meraga; it is a healthy city, abundant in food, and prices are cheap. It lies at the "ash-Shurat" lake.

Meianij, Khunaj, Ujan, Daharrakan, Khuvey, Salamas, Merand, Tibriz, Berzend, Varsan, Mukan, Jabravan and Ushnukh cities are insignificant and similar in size.

As for Jabravan Tibriz and Ushnuh-al-Azariya, these three cities and the area covered by or are called Rudainia.

As for Berd'a, it is a large city, more farsakh in length and width, healthy, blooming and very abundant in crops and fruits. In Iraq and Khorasan, after Rhey and Ispagani, there is no city more significant, more flourishing and more beautiful in terms of location and lands than Berd'a. From it, in less than one farcah, there is a place called Andarab, occupying more than a day's journey in length and breadth. This place is filled with gardens and vegetable gardens. All kinds of fruits grow in it, and by the way, an excellent Volotsk nut, better than the Samarkand nut. Among the fruits, Shahiballut is better than Shahiballut of Syria. There also grows a fruit called "zukal", approximately the size of "gubeira". It has a seed in it and is sweet when ripe and bitter when ripe.

As for shahiballut, it is half the size of a black walnut, and its taste is close to the taste of a Volotsk nut and a ripe date.

Figs in Berda'a are brought from Lasub, and they are considered the best of this kind of fruit. A lot of silk is exported from Berd'a. Silk worms are fed on mulberry trees that do not belong to anyone. A lot of silk goes from there to Persia (Iraq) and Khuzistan.

In one third of Berd'a there is the Kura river, and in the Kura river there is “surmakhi” fish delivered in salted form to different countries. From the Kura, fish are also caught, called: "zerakan" and "ishubet". Both fish are preferred to other types of fish in these countries.

Near the gate of Berd'a, called the " Gate of the Kurds ", there is a market named "al-Kyurkiy", the size of farces in a square. People gather for it every Sunday, and people from all kinds of countries, even from Iraq, flock here. This market is more significant than the Kulsere market. The name of the market: "al-Kyurkiy" took precedence over the name of the day due to the constant opening of the market on that day, so often residents, counting the days of the week, say: "Saturday, Kurkiy, Monday, Tuesday" until they count the whole week.

Their treasury is in the cathedral mosque according to the Syrian custom, and the Syrian treasury is always in mosques. This treasury has a flat roof covered with lead with an iron door, on nine columns. The ruler's palace is next to the cathedral mosque in the city, and the markets are on the outskirts of the city.

The city of Bab-ul-Abwab holds by the sea, and in the center is a roadstead for ships. Between the roads and the sea, two walls are built parallel to the coast; the passage for ships is narrow, and the entrance is made winding, and a chain is stretched at the mouth of the port, so that the ship can neither go out nor enter except with permission. These two walls are made of stones and lead.

Bab-ul-Abwab lies on the Tabaristan Sea. This city is larger than Ardabil (Yakut adds: "about two miles in length and width"), and there are many crops, but a small amount of fruits, not counting what is brought here from neighboring countries. Around this city there is a wall of stone, burnt bricks and clay, and this city serves as a port on the Khazar Sea for Serir and other countries of the "kafirs"; it also serves as a port for Djurdjan, Tabaristan and Deilem. Linen clothes are exported from Bab-ul-Abwab, and linen clothes are not made in Arran, Armenia and Aderbeydzhan, except in these places. Saffron also grows there. In Bab-ul-Abwab there are slaves from different countries of the "kafirs". (Yakut is a famous Arab geographer. Born in 1179 in Byzantium. As a boy he was taken prisoner by the Muslims. Since 1213 he traveled a lot and compiled a voluminous geographical dictionary: "Kitab-mu'jam-al-Buldan (Alphabetical register of countries)", published in 1866 - 1870 by Wüstenfeld in Leipzig in 6 volumes. He died in Aleppo in 1224 AD 50 years old) Text of Yakut: “Around the city, a stone wall extending from the mountain to the sea, long but not wide. Through the mountain, this city has no way to the cities of Muslims due to the deterioration of the road and the difficulty of traveling from the lands of the "kafirs" to the lands of Muslims. With the length of the wall, a part of it still protrudes into the sea like a long bow, and thus the city from the side of the wall is protected from the approach of ships. This wall is of a solid construction on a huge foundation; it was built by Anushirvan .

Bab-ul-Abwab is one of the famous and significant border areas "and this city is great and glorious", because in a very huge number it is surrounded by enemies of various nationalities and languages in large numbers.

There is a high mountain named "Dzy'b" near the city. At the top of this mountain, a large amount of firewood is collected every year and fires are lit on it if necessary, and thus the inhabitants of Aderbeijan, Arran and Armenia are warned of a sudden attack by enemies.

The waters of the sea sometimes damage the wall of this city.

It is said that more than seventy different tribes live on the tops of the mountains that stretch adjacent to Bab-ul-Abwab, and each tribe has a different language, so they do not understand each other. The Khosroi took great care of this border area and did not slacken their observation of its position due to the great danger from this side and the strong fear of it.

In this place, guards were settled from immigrants from different regions and reliable in their opinion (khosroev) for protection, and the entire inhabited area, which they would take possession, was provided for their exclusive use without any expenses for the government, without hassle about this region and without interference in his affairs; all this was done out of a strong desire to populate this land with reliable people and thereby protect the Turks and "kafirs" from various hostile tribes. Among those settled here to guard the borders was the Tabarseran tribe, and in the vicinity of the latter, the tribes known under the names Filan and Lakz ; the latter are especially numerous and courageous. In addition, there are the tribes of Lyran, Sharvan and others. Each tribe was assigned a place of residence, which they had to protect. They are numerous and strong, and have both cavalry and infantry.

Bab-ul-Abwab is a port on this sea. Khazars, Serirs, Shenzans, Khaizans, Kurdzhi, Ruklana, Zerikerany and Gumik from the north flock to him, and people from Djurzhan, Tabaristan, Deilem and Jil also come there.

Residents of Bab-ul-Abwab are engaged in the dressing of linen clothes, and in the regions of Arran, Armenia and Aderbeijan, linen is prepared only in Bab-ul-Abvab and its volosts; saffron in the same place. Slaves from various tribes are found in Bab-ul-Abwab.

In the neighborhood of Bab-ul-Abwab to the borders of the Islamic states on the seashore there is a volost named Muscat, and next to it is the land of Lakzov. These latter are a significant, courageous and tall tribe; they have plantations and a permanently inhabited area. Their privileged class is called Hamashira, and they are ruled by kings; and below them "Mishak", then "Al-Akra" and "Megan" follows. Between them and between Bab-ul-Abwab, the country of Tabarseran; its inhabitants are as courageous and brave as Lakzy, and their country is as densely populated as those of those; except that the Lakzes outnumber the Tabarserans, and their holdings are much larger. And above is Philan; this is a minor area.

Behind Maskag, along the coast of this sea, is the city of Shabiran, insignificant, but fortified and rich in volosts. This is followed by the Jashemdan volost, and then the Jabal and Sharvan farms to the borders of Baku, Dernik, Lakzov and Mejma-al-Nahrain. Further behind this is Lyran, and in this country there is a large fortified castle. They say that in this castle there is a murmur of keys, and it itself is inaccessible "

Tiflis is a city smaller than Bab-ul-Abvab in size; around it are two walls of clay, and in them there are three gates. This city is very flourishing and rich in fruits and crops. It is a border town. There are baths in it, in the genus Tabariysk, and the water in them is hot without the help of fire.

In Arran, there are no cities more significant than Berda'a, Bab-ul-Abwab and Tiflis. Baylakan, Varsan, Birdij - cities are insignificant and similar in size, but flourishing and rich in land.

Dabil is greater than Ardabil; this city serves as the capital of Armenia and in it the ruler's palace is similar to the palace of the ruler of Arran in Berd'a and the palace of the ruler of Aderbeydzhan in Ardabil. There is a wall around Dabil; there are many Christians, and the city's cathedral mosque is next to the church. In this city, woolen dresses and carpets, pillows, seats, cords and other items of Armenian production are made. They also produce paint, called "kirmiz", and paint the cloth with it. I learned that this is a worm that spins around itself like a silk worm, and, in addition, I learned that many silk fabrics are made there.

Dabil is the capital of Armenia and in it is Sanbat, the son of Ashug. The city was constantly in the hands of noble Christians, and Christians make up the majority of the inhabitants of Armenia, it is also the "kingdom of Arman". Armenia borders on Rum and its borders up to Berd'a, to Jazira and to Aderbeijon. The border area adjacent to Rum from the Armenian side is Kalikala. Inhabitants of Aderbeydzhan, Djibal, Ray and neighboring countries make raids on Armenia. They have a place from where they enter Rum, known under the name "Tara-bezunda". Merchants flock there, and then go to trade in the countries of Rum. Thus, everything that comes from brocade, silk and Romanian clothes in these countries is from Tarabezunde.

Nashava, Berkeri, Khilat, Manazkird, Badlis, Kalikala, Arzan, Mayafarikin and Siraj - these cities are insignificant, similar in size, but flourishing, and their entire population is rich.

The Mayafarikin is considered to belong to the Jazira , if you do not take into account that it lies on the other side of the Tigris, and the Tiger serves as the border of the Jazira, which we mentioned when depicting the terrain between the Tigris and the Euphrates . Therefore, we have added Mayafarikin to Armenia.

As for the navigable rivers, such are the Kura and Rass (ar-Rass) rivers, and the Sabidrud, located between Ardabil and Zanjan, is not so significant that ships sail along it.

In the Kura River, the water is fresh, healthy and light; The Kura flows out of the mountains in the country of Janza and Shamkur near Tiflis and flows into the lands of the "kafirs" slowly flows from the country of Allans from the mountains between .... then flows through the city of Tiflis, then through Hunan, a castle known as "Kal'- t-Turab "; this is a huge hill with a castle on it; then it flows to Shakki and from the country of Janza and Shamkur through Bab-Berd'a to Berzenj ").

The Russa water is fresh and pleasant; it leaves Armenia and flows until it reaches Bab-Varsan; then it reaches the back of the Mukan and the channel of the Kura, and then flows into the sea ( C is like this: “The Rass River is smaller in size than the Kura, it is fresh and its sources are beyond Armenia; Rass flows to Bab-Varsan, and then reaches Mykan and flows further, until it reaches the Sharvan volost, called Darnik, the land of this volost is fertile. Rass unites with Kura and flows into the Tabaristan Sea. The Samur River flows through the Lakzov country, called Samur. Its origins are in the mountains, and it reaches Shakki. Sometimes it increases, and sometimes decreases, but this river is abundant in water and rich in tributaries. None of the other rivers we have mentioned overflows and does not increase so that it is worth mentioning ").

As for the seas of Armenia, Arran and Aderbeydzhan, in Aderbeydzhan there is a lake called Lake Urmia with salt water; it is home to fish and an animal, called a "water dog". The lake is large, and around the whole lake there are populated places, villages and volosts. There are three farsakhs between this lake and Meraga; there are two farsakhs between the lake and the city of Urmia; between Daharrakan and the lake shore there are about four Farsakhs; the length of the lake is about four days of the journey of the riding animal, and with the wind it is sometimes possible to swim it in one night.

Another lake in Armenia called "Lake Arjish". Tirrich fish is caught from it and exported to all countries.

These countries are washed by the Tabaristan Sea; on this sea lie the cities of Wab-ul-Abwab and Baku, and in Baku there is oil.

As for the Tiger, only a very small part of it concerns Armenia, and we have already depicted the Tiger on the map of Jazira and Iraq.

Mules are removed from the country of Berd'a and delivered to all countries. Also export madder from there, delivered to the countries of India and other places.

The borders of Arran from Bab-ul-Abvab to Tiflis and to the place known as "Khadzhiran" ( Nakhichevan ), near the Rassa river.

The border of Aderbeydzhan: a mountain range, reaching the extreme limit of Tarma and up to Zanjan: then it touches the extreme limits of Dinav, then stretches after Hulvan and Shagrazur until it approaches the Tigris, and then surrounds the borders of Armenia. In these cities the prices are so cheap that in some places the price of a sheep goes up to two dirgems, and the price of honey in some places goes so far as two or three mana is dirgem ("one mann for a dirgem"). Everything is in abundance there, although those who did not witness this, when talking about it, deny the possibility of such an abundance of products.

There are kings in the provinces, and their dominions represent separate states; their land is vast and their possessions are abundant. They include the king Sharvana, called sharvanshah, and the king of Abkhaz, called Abkhazshah.

Most of Aderbeydzhan, Armenia and Arran are mountainous. Near Dabil there is a high mountain named: "al-Haris"; it is not climbed due to its height and the difficulty of climbing; there is eternal snow on it. Behind her is another mountain below called "al-Khuveyris". Springs flow from Haris, and only hunters climb it for firewood. They say that in those countries there is no mountain higher than this one.

Mann Ardabil 1040 dirgems, in the genus of Shiraz manna, only in Shiraz it is called “man”, and in Ardabil “ritl” .

The language in Aderbeydzhan, Armenia and Arran is Persian and Arabic, excluding the regions of the city of Dabil: Armenian is spoken around it: in the country of Berd'a, the language is Arran.

In these countries there are the Kabk mountains, as they are called, and there are many different languages among the infidel peoples and many tribes of "kafirs".

The current coin of Aderbeydzhan, Arran and Armenia is gold, as well as silver.

Distances in these areas .

The way from Berd'a to Ardabil: from Berd'a to Yunan 7 farsakhs; 7 farsakhs from Yunan to Baylakan; from Baylakan to Varsan 7 farsakhs 7 farsakhs; there are 7 farsakhs from Balkhab to Berzend, and 15 farsakhs from Berzend to Ardabil.

The way from Berd'a to Bab-ul-Abvab 60, from Berd'a to Berzenj 18 farsakhs; from Berzenj to the ford through the Kura to Shemakhia (Yakut adds: “and there is no mosque in it”) 14 farsakhs; from Shemakhia to Sharvan 3 days' journey; from Sharvan to Abkhaz 2 days; 12 farsakhs from Abkhaz to Jasar-Samur, and 20 farsakhs from Jasar-Samur to Bab-ul-Abvab. “On the Bab-ul-Abvaba mountains, fortresses built by Khosroy; in these fortresses inhabited by people assigned to protect these roads, along which the Khazars walk to the Islamic lands. There are fourteen such fortresses, and people from Mosul, Diyar-Gabia and Syria live in them. They are known under the name of the same tribes, and the language (Arabic) is preserved from genus to genus. There is no boss above them, and they are watching Bab (Gate). There is a border between Lakzy and Shirvan, and an adjacent border between Shirvan and Lyran; Lyran has a border with Mukatey, and with the country of Absia too. There are few cities in this area. There is a fortified castle, and behind it to the mountains is the area neighboring Lakzam. Lakza and guard the castle, as the owner of Absya feels inclined towards them and diligently protects them. This is followed by the land of Shavka, then Abriya, then Saria, and finally Tiflis ").

The way from Berd'a to Tiflis: from Verda'a to Janza, city, 9 farsakhs: from Janza to Shamkur 10 farsakhs; from Shamkur to Hanoun, city 21, from Hunan to Kal'a-ibn-Kandaman there are 10 farsakhs, and from Kal'a to Tiflis 12 farsakhs.

The way from Berd'a to Dabil: from Berd'a to Kal-katus 9 farsakhs; from Calcatus to Metris 13 Farsakhs; 12 farsakhs from Metris to Dawmis; 16 farsakhs from Dawmis to Kil-Kui; from Kil-Kuy to Sisadzhan there are 16 farsakhs, and from Sisadzhan to Dabil 16 farsahs.

The path from Berd'a to Dabil goes through the lands of the Armenians, and all these cities are in the kingdom of Sanbat, the son of Ashut.

The path from Ardabil to Zanjan 64: from Ardabil to Kantar-Sabidrud two transitions; from Kantara to Serat one day; from Serat to Nuweya one day's journey and from Nuway to Zanjan one day's journey.

The way from Ardabil to Merag 58, from Ardabil to Meianij 20 farsakhs; from Meianij to Khunaj, a city, 7 farsakhs; from Khunaj to the Kul-sera volost with a huge market, but without a mosque, 3 farsakhs, and from Kul-sera to Meragi 10 farsakhs.

The path from Ardabil to Amid 66: from Ardabil to Meragi 40 farsakhs; from Meragi to Daharrakan city with a mosque, two transitions; from him to Urmia, the city, 2 transitions; from Urmia to Salamas 2 transitions; 7 farsakhs from Salamas to Khuwayya; from Khuwayi to Berkeri 30 farsakhs; from Berkeri to Arjish one day; from Arjish to Khilat 3 days; from Khilat to Bedlis one day; from Bedlis to Miyafarikin 3 days, and from Miyafarikin to Amid 2 days.

The way from Meragi to Dabil 67: from Meragi to Urmia 30 farsahs;


Ibn Khordadbeh and his writings
Author: Hajiyeva U.G

Kitabul masalik val mamalik
Kitabul masalik val mamalik

Abu-l-Qasim 'Ubeidullah-ibn-' Abdullah-ibn-Ibn Khordadbeh is the author of the earliest extant Arabic book on administrative geography. His grandfather Orradamb was a Zoroastrian who converted to Islam at the insistence of the Barmakids. His father Abd-Allah was in 201 / 816-17 the governor of Al-Mamun in Tabarestan, where he campaigned in the mountains and overthrew the local ruler Shahriar b. Sharvin (Tabari, III, p. 1014-15; tr. XXXII, p. 64; compare Rabino, p. 262). His son was apparently born in Khorasan, but grew up in Baghdad, receiving the cultural education of Adib and studying music with his father's friend, the famous singer Eshak Mavsheli, who sparked his interest in music. Upon reaching maturity, he became director of the postal and intelligence service in Jebal, and then in Samara and Baghdad. Obviously, it was the experience gained here that he used for his road book "Kitab Al-Masalik Wal-Mamalik", compiled in its first version when he was in Samarkand, in ca. 232/846. He spent most of his later life as a benefactor (Nadim) of the Caliphs and Masudi (Morūj VIII, PP.88-100; ed. Pellat, V, PP. 125-31) describes how he gave Caliph Al-Mohammed a lengthy exposition of the lute and its development, for which he received an honorary mantle. Fehrest (ed. Tajaddud, p. 165, tr. 326) lists eight works of Ibn Khordadbeh: 1. "Kitab al-masalik" - "geography"; 2. "Adab as Samakh" - "a book on the etiquette of listening to music"; 3. "Kitab Jamharat Ansab Al-Fars Van-Nawakil" - "A book about the geniology of the Persians, the deported and resettled peoples"; 4. "Kitab Al-Tabik" - "The Book of Cookery"; 5. "Kitab Ash-sharab" - "The Book of Drinking"; 6. "Kitab All Lakhv Val Malakhi" - "The Book of Music and Musical Instruments" (Publishing House of Khalifa, Beirut, 1964); 7. "Kitab Al Anwah" - "The book about the rising and setting of the stars"; 8. "Kitab Al-Nudamah Wal Julasah" - "The Book of Good Companions". Masoudi (Moruj; ed. Pellat, I, p. 14) and Qalibi (Ḡorar, p. 130) and referred to him as "Kitab al-Kabir fi-t-tariq." Masudi praises her for her detailed information on the kings of Persia and others peoples. "Kitab Al masalik wa-l-mamalik" has its significance in the development of geographical science in the Islamic world. Ibn Khordadbeh provides very detailed information on postal routes through the Caliphate, intermediate points and distances between them, expressed in farces. It starts from Sawad Iraq and extends north and east through Persia to the land of the Turks, Farhan and Sindh, and then south and west to the Arabian Peninsula, Syria, Armenia, the Byzantine borders, Egypt and the Maghreb. It includes details of the tax revenues of several provinces of the Islamic world, and it had a special bearing on the titularity of various local rulers, their officials and their commanders, including the Byzantines. Masoudi claimed that it was the best job of its kind in his time. It was widely used by Ibn Al Fakih and Samanid vizier Jayhani for his lost guide. Ibn Hawkal always took with him a copy of this book about his travels (p. 329, tr. Kramers, p. 322). According to Mukaddasi, Ibn Khordadbe's work was too condensed to be of value, but Mukaddasi himself used her routes for his own book. In fact, the work of Ibn Khordadbe is not only a catalog of routes and stages, but includes many valuable historical sources.

Excerpts from the book of Ibn Khordadbeh - "The Book of Ways and Kingdoms"

The titles of the kings of the earth The kings of the Turks, Tibetans and Khazars are all called "Khakan" ... The kings whom Ardashir calls shahs: Buzurk-Armeshan-shah; Azarbazkan Shah; Allan Shah (Mukan); Barashkan Shah (in Azerbaijan); Shiryan Shah (in Azerbaijan) These are the titles of the kings. Jerby News Jerbi, the countries of the north, make up a fourth of the entire state, and the northern waspechback, during the time of the Persians was called Azarbazkan-ispehbed.This area includes: Armenia, Azerbaijan ... Bebr, Tailasan, Khazars, Allans, Slavs and Abar are still located in this country (Avars). The way to Aderbeydzhan and to Armenia. Travelers leave the Khorasan road at Sinn-Sumeir. From Sinn-Sumeir to Dinavir 5 farsakhs (2 crossings). From Dinaver to Zanjan there are 29 crossings. Then to Meragi 11 crossings. Then to Meyanij 2 crossings. Then there are 11 transitions to Ardabil, and finally to Varsan, which is the most extreme point of the Aderbeidzhan region, 11 transitions. Cities and volosts in Azerbaijan. Meraga; Mayanidge; Ardabil; Varsan; Sisear; Berza; Saburkhast (a: A: "and Sa-r-hast", B: "and Sar-hast".); Tabriz, are in the possession of Muhammad-ibn-ar-Rabbad Azdiyts; Merand, belonging to Ibn-Bagis (b: Named "Muhammad".); Huwei; Kulsera; Mukan belongs to Shakla; Berzend; Janza, city of Abarviza; Jabravan; Nariz, the city of Ali-ibn-Murra; Urmia, city of Zardushta 2; Salamas; Ash-Shiz, and in it the fire temple of Azerjushnas (c: A: Azerhash.), Very revered by magicians; every king, before accession to the throne, makes a pilgrimage from Medain here on foot. Next is Bajarvan; al-Salak volost; Sindabay volost; al-Buzz; Urm parish; Belvankerge; Serat volost; Daskiaver and Meyanherj volost (d: A: "Mubikherj" B: "Malbuhuj".). The paths from Denawer to Berzend. From Dinavir to al-Khabarjan 7 farsakhs. Then 6 farsakhs to the Van hill. Further to Sisar 7 farsakhs. Then to Sisar. Andarab 4 farsakhs. Further to Baylakan 5 farsakhs. Further to Berze 6 farsakhs. Then there are 8 farsakhs to Saburkhast, then 7 farsakhs to Meraga, then 11 farsakhs to Dakharrakan, then 9 farsakhs to Tabriz, 10 farsakhs to Merand, then 4 farsakhs to al-Khan. Finally, 6 farsakhs in Khuvei. From Meragi to Kulsere 10 farsahs. ... - Further up to Serat 10 farsakh. - Then to Nir 5 farsakhs. - Then to Ardabil 5 farsakhs. - Finally in Mukan 10 farsakhs. From Ardabil to Khushsh 8 farsakhs. Further to Berzend 6 farsakhs. Berzend was destroyed, but Afshin rebuilt it and settled in it. From Berzend to Sadarasp, where Afshin's first trenches were, 2 farsakhs. Further to Zakharkash (a: B: "Raharkas".), places of Afshin's second trenches 3, 2 farsakhs. Further to Du-ar-Rud (b: Tabari: "Ruz-ar-Ruz".), places of Afshin's third trenches, 2 farsakhs. Finally, to Buzz, the city of Babek, 1 farces. The poet Hussein-ibn-Dahhav says: "He left nothing of the inhabitants of Buzz except images similar to those of the Irem." The path from Berzend to the Belasadzhan desert, and from there to Varsan, the extreme point of the Azerbeydjan region, 12 farsakh .From Meragi to Janza 5 6 farsakhs. Then to Musa-Abad 5 farsakhs. Further to Berze 4 farsakhs. Then to Jabrovan 8 farsakhs. Then to Nariz 4 farsakhs. Then to Urmia (a: B: adds: “the city of Zardusht”. ) 14 Farsakhs. Finally, to Salmas, partly by land, partly along Lake Urmia, 6 Farsakhs. Kharaj Aderbeidzhan reach 2,000,000 dirgems. The path along which Muhammad-i walked bn-Khumeid by land when he brought out the leaders of the uprising in Aderbeidzhan: he rode from Meragi to Berz, then to Sisar, then to Shiz, which is 4 farsakh away from Dinaver, and then to Dinaver. The way to Armenia . From Varsan to Berd'a 8 transitions. Then to Mansur, which is in Armenia, 4 transitions. From Berd'a to Tiflis 10 transitions. From Berd'a to Bab-ul-Abvab 15 transitions. From Berd'a to Dabil 7 transitions .From Meranda to the valley (river) 10 Farsakhs. From there to Nashav there are 10 farsakhs. Then to Dabil 20 (a: B B is corrected to “ten farsakhs”.) Farsakhs. From Varsan to Darman 3 farsakhs. - Then, to Baylakap there are 9 farsakhs. - Further up to Berd'a 14 farsakhs. From Berd'a to Buzz 30 farsakhs. Armenia I: Sisadzhan, Arran, Tiflis, Berda'a, Baylakan, Kabala and Sharvan. Armenia II: Jurzan (b: A: "Khurzan".), Sugdabil, Bab-Feiruz-Qubad and al-Lakzy. Armenia III: Busfurrajan, Dabil, Siraj-Tayr, Bagravend and Nashava. Armenia IV: Shimshat, Khilat, Kalikala, Arjish and Badjuneis. The regions of Arran, Jurzan and Sisajan are in the kingdom of the Khazars. The regions of Dabil, Nashava, Siraj, Bagravend, Khilat and Badjunais are in the state of Rum. The Persians conquered the entire side to the lands of Sharvan, where the rock of Moses is located, from which a source of living water gushes.In the region of Shimshat, not far from Hisn Ziyad, is the tomb of Safwan-ibn-Mu'attal from the Sulyaym tribe, the ambassador of God - may the Lord have mercy on him ! A tree grows not far from it, and none of the people knows what kind of tree it is. Its fruits are similar to almonds, they are eaten with the skin, and they are sweeter than honey. Qubad 7 built the cities of Baylakan, Berda'a and Kabala and built a brick wall. Anusharvan 8 founded the cities of Shabiran, Kerkera and Bab-ul-Abwab. And Abwab (gate) is 360 castles or fortifications in mountain gorges. He also founded Belendzher and Semender and built the city of Sugdabil in the Jurzan land; there he built his castle and named it : "Bab-Feiruz-Qubad". Khuvey also belongs to Armenia, and as-Sanaria, Albak, Kisal, Abkhaz and the fortress of al-Dardaman, Khaizan, Shakki and the city of Bab. Al-Abwab These are actually exits from the gorges formed by the Kabk mountains, protected by fortifications, of which the outstanding are: Bab-Sul, Bab-al-Lan, Bab-ash-Shabiran, | Bab-Lazika, Bab-Barika, Bab-Samsakhi, Bab -Sahib-as-Serir (the owner of the throne), Bab-Filan-shah, Bab-Karunan, Bab-Tabarseran-shah, Bab-Liran-shah, Bab-Liban-shah and Bab-Anusharvan . The city of Semender lies behind Bab, and the whole country behind him is in the power of the Khazars . In the story of Moses - may salvation be over him! - it says: “Don't you remember when we stopped at the rock? I forgot the fish that came to life. " The rock is Sharvan's rock, the sea is the Jilan sea (a: A: "Jailan".) And the city is the city of Bajarvan. "They continued on their way until they met a young man, and he (unknown) killed him", in the Khaizan district. Kharaj of Armenia 4,000,000 dirgems. The path from Djurdjan to Hamlidj, the capital of the Khazars I mentioned this city here because it is located in the northern part, from Djurdjan to Hamlidj, the capital of Khazaria, lying on the banks of the river that leaves the lands of the Slavs and flows into the Djurdjan Sea, with a favorable wind 8 days of sailing. : Hamlidge, Belenger and Beida. Al-Bukhturi said: “Glory in Iraq was added to that which was considered for him in Hamlij or Belendzher.” Behind the Bab are the kingdoms of Suvar, al-Lakz, Allan, Filan and Muscat, the kingdom of Sahib al-Serir and the city of Semender. the land is divided into four parts: 1st Arufa (Europe); 2nd Lubia (Libya); 3rd Ityufia (Ethiopia); 4th Ascutia (Scythia); the latter includes Armenia, Khorasan and the lands of the Turks and Khazars. About the amazing transformations of water. There is a stream in Azerbaijan, the waters of which, after flowing for some time, harden and turn into a ridge of stones. About amazing mountains. The al-Arj mountain range, located between Mecca and Medina, stretches towards Syria until it connects with Lebanon near Hims and with Sapir near Damascus; then it stretches further until it connects with the mountains of Antioch and Massisa, and is called ... zdesal-Luqam; further it connects with the heights of Malatia, Shimshat and Kalikala and extends to the Khazar Sea, on which Bab-ul-Abvab lies. There it bears the name: Kabk. Who is sent (for presentation to Khosroy) from the lands of the Khazars and Allans, for those the place of waiting for Bab-ul-Abvab. Khosroy is informed about them by letter, and they wait until his order regarding them comes. The chapter on the headwaters The origins of Ar-Rass, the rivers of Armenia, are located near Kalikala. It flows through Arran and the Arran River flows into it; then it flows near Varsan, until it reaches Mejma '(the place of connection); the merging of the two seas is mentioned by the Lord - He is Glorified and Holy! Ar-Rass and Kura are connected, and between them is the city of Baylakan; having united they flow together until it flows into the Djurdjan Sea. The sources of Ispidrud are at the gates of the city of Sisar. The sources of Shahirud are at Talakan Reisky. They join and flow into the Djurdjan Sea. Translated from Arabic by N.A. Karaulov Source: "Information of Arab writers about the Caucasus, Armenia and Aderbeydzhan": III. Ibn-Khordadbe // Collection of materials for the description of localities and tribes of the Caucasus, Vol. 32. Tiflis. 1903

Khanates after the collapse of the Golden Horde

1 Jan 2021

The Golden Horde stretched so that it took eight months to travel from east to west through the Horde, and five months from north to south.

In the west, Ulus Jochi included Moldavia and the Crimea , in the south it reached Khorezm, and in the north, the northeastern principalities of Rus were subordinate to the Golden Horde.

The Golden Horde had two capitals: Sarai-Batu was located to the west of the r. Volga, the city of Sygnak was located in the southeast of the Syr-Darya River .

The collapse of the Horde began in the second half of the XIV century, during the invasion of Tamerlane.

The last khan of the Golden Horde, Kichi Muhammad, died in 1459, after which Russia heaved a sigh of relief. The Great Horde appeared instead of the Golden Horde.

After the death of Kichi-Muhammad, the Big Horde was led by his ardent opponent Khan Akhmat, who in 1480 undertook

a desperate attempt to return the Horde to its former greatness and force the sovereign of all Russia Ivan III to pay tribute to him, but the attempt failed.

A year later, the khan died during an attack on his headquarters by the enemy cavalry, among which were the soldiers of another successor to the Golden Horde - the Siberian Khanate.

Siberian Khanate

The Siberian Khanate is a Turkic state that arose around 1568 in Western Siberia and existed for 130 years.

It stretched from the Permian lands to the mouth of the Ob in the north, bordered in the east with the Pied Horde (the Selkup and Ket tribes), and in the south it was adjacent to the Nogais and Teleuts .

The state structure of the multinational khanate was of a paramilitary character. The khan was chosen by the top of the nobility - the murzas, beks and tarhans . The beks themselves ruled over their lands, but were obliged to participate in wars, allocating warriors and horses to the khan. The non-Turkic population: Ostyaks, Samoyeds and Mansi, was in complete subordination. The most famous of the Siberian khans was Khan Kuchum , who subjugated not only the Khanty and Mansi , but even the Baraba steppes and some Bashkir tribes , forcing everyone to pay yasak .

The pride of the Khanate was the army, numbering 10,000 soldiers , which had its own artillery. Considering that at that time the army usually accounted for one fifth of the total population, it can be assumed that the population of the khanate was small - about 50-60,000 people.

Kazan Khanate

Another successor to the Horde was the Kazan Khanate, the founder of which is considered to be Khan Ulu-Muhammad - the enemy of the Golden Horde Khan Kichi-Muhammad.

After a clash with Kichi, he migrated beyond the Volga, expelled the local khan, and seizing Kazan , built a new capital nearby. The heyday of the khanate came in the second half of the 15th century - it reached 700,000 square meters. kilometers, and on its territory lived Tatars , Votyaks , Chuvashs , Cheremis , Bashkirs , Meshchera and Mordovians .

In 1552, the khanate was conquered by Ivan the Terrible and annexed to the Russian kingdom .

Kazakh Khanate

The fourth successor to the Golden Horde was the Kazakh Khanate, which was formed on the lands of the Horde and the Uzbek Khanate . It went through a tumultuous history of falls and rebirths, civil war, disintegration into separate Zhuzes and a new unification into a khanate, and existed until the middle of the 19th century, until it became part of the Turkestan General Government of the Russian Empire.

The khanate reached its highest prosperity during the reign of Khan Kasym , conducting diplomatic relations with Russia and the Crimea , but the main interests of the khanate were directed to the neighboring Central Asian states.

Astrakhan Khanate

The Astrakhan Khanate turned out to be the smallest fragment of the Golden Horde and was located at the mouth of the Volga ; Tatars and Nogai became its inhabitants. The Khanate ceased to exist on June 29, 1554 , when its army was defeated by the Russian army, headed by Prince Pronsky , who was sent to establish the dominion of the Russian kingdom along the entire Volga.

The Astrakhan Khanate was a buffer between the Crimean Khanate and the Nogai Horde - the most powerful successor to the Jochi ulus .

Nogai Horde

The Nogai Horde turned out to be not only the largest state left after the Horde, but also caused the Russians a lot of trouble.

The Nogai horde was led by Muslim Mangyts , who came from Mongolia .

At the origins of the Horde was Khan Edigei , who defeated the Lithuanian Vitovt and forced Vasily I to resume paying tribute to the Tatars . The population of the horde reached 1,000,000 people, and the army numbered up to 200,000 soldiers.

By the 17th century, the horde split into several small khanates, and the Nogai settled in the North Caucasus and the Black Sea region , and some joined the Crimean Khanate and even the Ottoman Empire .

Crimean Khanate

The Crimean Khanate lasted longer than the others thanks to the patronage of the Ottoman Empire and became part of Russia only  1783 .

For a long time, a brisk trade in Slavic slaves went through the Crimean Khanate, who were sold to the east. Despite the small territory, by the end of the state's existence, about 3,000,000 people lived on its territory.

Kasimov Khanate

The founder of the Kasimov Khanate was Ulug Mohammed Kasim . The capital of the khanate was the city of Kasimov. Tatars, Mordovians and Tatars-Mishars lived in the Kasimov Khanate. The Muslim state was headed by a khan with Karachais, and the nobility were beks or murzas . The population consisted of merchants, artisans and peasants. Even in the 16th century, a slave market operated in Kasimov, where people of different nationalities were sold.


Al Kudama

10 Sep 2020

(Died A.D. 948).
Abu-l-Faraj Qudama-ibn-Ja'far-ibn-Qudama was a Christian who converted to Islam under the Caliph Muktefi.
We do not know anything about his life, except that he was in the civil service in Baghdad. His father knew Ibn Khordadbe personally.
Kudama wrote a lot of works, but only the second half of his composition, "Kitab-al-Kharaj", has reached us. For reasons of de Goeje, Qudama wrote this book around 316 AH. The information given to us by Kudama is especially important because he borrowed a lot from official sources, what he could do as a person in the civil service.
Qudama died in 337 AH.
The surviving part of Kudama's work is in the Koprule library in Constantinople. The list from this manuscript was obtained with great difficulty by Sh. Shefer.
Unfortunately, the manuscript is far from dotted everywhere, which makes it impossible to read the text correctly.
Part of this book forms the second half of the 6th volume of the Bibliotheca Geographorum edition of M. J. de Goeje, following Ibn-Khordadbe's work, and is entitled Excerpta e Kitab al Kharadj auctore Kudama-ibn Dja'far.
The numbers in the margins of this text and translation indicate pages in volume VI of de Goeje; Latin letters in parentheses refer to footnotes, and numbers with brackets refer to actual comments placed at the end of the author.
Extracts from the book about the haraj and the duties of the secretary of Abul-Faraj Qudama-ibn-Ja'far, the secretary of Baghdad.
Provinces of Aderbeijana 4:
Ardabil, Merand, Jabravan, Varsan, and the capital is the city of Berda'a. The income received from them, according to the average calculation, is 4 500 000 dirhems,
The two provinces of Arzan and Mayafarikin adjoin Diyar Rabia from the north. The average income from them is 4,100,000 dirhems.
The neighboring country Tarun, actually a constituent part of Armenia; its owner pays 100,000 dirhems separately annually.
Armenia, located to the north of Tarun, contains the provinces: Jurzan, Dabil, Berzend, Siraje Tir, Badjunays, Arjish, Khilat, Sisajan, Arran, Kalikala and Busfurjan, and its capital is Nashava. Income from it on average in silver coin 4,000,000 dirhams.
The Khazar territory stretches from Armenia to Khuvarezm Khorasan. Anushirvan-ibn-Qubad, having ascended the throne, founded the cities of Shabiran, Muscat and Bab and al-Abwab in Armenia; they are named Abwab because they are built over roads in the mountains. He populated all these 260 places with detachments from his army, named Siyasadzhi. Then, fearing the raids of the Khazars, he wrote to their king, asking him for peace, friendship and the conclusion of a defensive alliance, and woo his daughter in order to seal the friendship with the Khazar king; and in general Anushirvan showed a strong desire for even greater kinship with the Khazar and sent him one girl who was in his palace and was adopted by one of his spouses, whom he gave to his daughter. The Khazar took his daughter to Anushirvan. After that Anushirvan went to the Khazar and they met at a place known as al-Barshali; They feasted for several days and became friends with each other, showing mutual tenderness and honoring each other. Then Anushirvan ordered some of his trusted and confidants to suddenly attack the edge of the Khazar king's camp and set it on fire. With the onset of morning, the Khazar complained to Anushirvan about this, and he denied it, saying that he knew nothing about this case. After several nights passed, Anushirvan ordered his friends to do again what they had done before. When this was done, the Khazar, in anger at their act, began to loudly express his displeasure, until Anushirvan calmed him and apologized to him. The Khazar king accepted the apology and calmed down. Then Anushirvan gave the order to plant fire in one of the edges of his camp; the fire hit the sheds built of hay and brushwood. In the morning, Anushirvan began to loudly express his displeasure to the Khazars and told him: “Your people almost destroyed and destroyed my camp. You suspected me, and now I, in turn, have the right to suspect you. " Then the Khazarez swore to him that he knew nothing about what had happened.
Anushirvan told him: “O my brother! As you can see, your army and mine do not approve of our world, as it is a hindrance to their campaigns and raids, which we previously undertook against each other. I fear that they might unleash a rebellion that will shatter our hearts after our sincere and pure love, so that we will turn to the old enmity after the conclusion of kinship and friendship; it would be fair if you let me build a wall between you and me. We will make a gate in it and not a single person will enter from you against our will. "
The Khazar gave him a favorable answer to this and retired, and Anushirvan set about building a wall and rebuilt it between the sea and the mountains, lifting it 300 cubits high, from boulders and lead.6 Then he ordered to carry stones on ships and throw them in the sea until the embankment rises above the surface of the water; on this embankment he continued to build the wall and drove the wall into the sea for three miles. After completing the construction of the wall, he hung an iron gate in the passage and assigned 100 horse guards to them, whereas before he had to appoint 50,000 troops there; he also built a movable tower there. The Khazar king was told after that: "He deceived you, giving not his daughter for you and having strengthened himself from you." But the Khazarets already could do nothing against Anushirvan's cunning. From that time on, the Khazars' raids on Armenia stopped, whereas before the Khazars constantly attacked it ...
Per. N. A. Karaulova
The text is reproduced from the publication: Information of Arab writers about the Caucasus, Armenia and Aderbeijon: IV. Kudama // Collection of materials for the description of localities and tribes of the Caucasus, Vol. 32. Tiflis. 1903